proofreading and editing (2023)

8.4proofreading and editing

learning goals

  1. During proofreading and editing, identify key problem areas in the essay draft.
  2. Use peer reviews and editing checklists to help with proofreading and editing.
  3. Review and edit the first draft of your essay and create a final draft.

Proofreading and editing are the two tasks you perform to significantly improve your writing. Both are very important elements of the writing process. You might think that a complete first draft means few improvements are needed. But even seasoned writers need to improve their drafts and rely on their peers for proofreading and editing. Keep in mind that athletes miss receptions, fumbles, or miss goals. Dancers forget steps, spin too slowly, or miss a beat. For athletes and dancers, the more they practice, the better their performance. Web designers look for better images, a smarter design, or a more attractive background for their web pages. Writing has the same capacity to benefit from refinement and revision.

Understand the purpose of review and editing.

Proofreading and editing allows you to examine two important aspects of your writing separately, so you can give each task your full attention.

  • If youcheckExamine a text for clarity of ideas. Revision often involves adding, cutting, moving, or changing information to make ideas clearer, more precise, more interesting, or more persuasive., take a second look at your ideas. You can add, cut, move, or change information to make your ideas clearer, more precise, more interesting, or more compelling.
  • If youto editExamine a text to see how the author expressed his ideas. Editing typically involves adding or changing words and correcting problems with grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure., look again at how you expressed your ideas. You add or change words. Corrects all grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure problems. You improve your writing style. They turn your essay into a polished and mature text, the end product of your best efforts.


How do you get the most out of your revisions and edits? Here are some strategies authors have developed to see their first drafts in a new light. Try them this semester; So keep using the ones that work.

  • Take a break. You're proud of what you've written, but maybe you're too close to making a change. Set your writing aside for a few hours or even a day until you can examine it objectively.
  • Ask someone you trust for their opinion and constructive criticism.
  • Pretend you are one of their readers. Is he satisfied or dissatisfied? There?
  • Use the resources your university offers. Find out where your school's writing lab is located and ask online or in person about the support they offer.

Many people hear the wordscritical,critical, zcriticismand they only pick up negative vibes that trigger feelings that make them blush, complain, or scream. However, as a writer and thinker, you must learn to be positive with yourself and have high expectations of your work. You also need to train your eye and trust your ability to fix what needs to be fixed. To do this, you need to learn where to look.

Create unity and coherence.

If you follow your outline exactly, you can be sure that your writing will stay on target and not stray from the main idea. However, when writers are in a hurry, tired, or can't find the right words, their writing can end up being less than they'd like. Their writing may not be the clearest and most concise, and they may add information that is not necessary to develop the main idea.

When a piece has to be writtenUnitA quality in which all the ideas in a paragraph and throughout the essay clearly belong together and are arranged in a logically meaningful order., all ideas in each paragraph and throughout the essay clearly belong together and are arranged in a logically meaningful order. If the deed hascoherenceA quality where writing a paper within a paragraph and from one paragraph to another clearly shows how one idea leads to another., Ideas flow smoothly. The writing clearly shows how one idea leads to the next within a paragraph and from one paragraph to another.


Reading aloud what you write often helps you find unity and coherence problems. Hear the clarity and flow of your ideas. Identify the places where you feel confused and write yourself a note about possible solutions.

create unity

Sometimes writers are caught up in the moment and can't resist a good digression. Even if you like such digressions in conversations with friends, unplanned digressions often distract from a text.

Mariah followed his outline as she wrote the three-paragraph body of her essay, tentatively titled "Digital Technology: The Latest and Greatest, At What Cost?" But a recent spree over an HDTV upset her so much that she deviated from the main topic of her third paragraph and inserted comments about the sales people at the electronics store she was visiting. When she revised her essay, she removed off-topic sentences that broke the unity of the paragraphs.

Read the next paragraph twice, the first time without Mariah's changes and the second time with them.

proofreading and editing (1)

Exercise 1

  1. Answer the following two questions about Mariah's paragraph:

    1. Do you agree with Mariah's decision to do the deletions she did? Did she cut too much, too little, or enough? To explain.
    2. Does the explanation of what screen resolution mean a digression? Or is it friendly to the target group and essential for understanding the paragraph? To explain.


    Share with a colleague and compare your answers.

  2. Now start reviewing the first draft of the essay you have written.Section 8 "Write your own first draft"🇧🇷 Read it again to find any statements that interfere with the unity of your writing. Decide the best way to review.


When you reread your essay to find reviews, look for each type of problem in a separate scan. Please read it once to locate problems with the device. Read through it a second time to find any consistency issues. You can follow this practice at many stages of the writing process.

writing at work

Many companies hire proofreaders and proofreaders to help them produce the cleanest final drafts of large writing projects. Text editors are responsible for suggesting revisions and style changes; Proofreaders check documents for capitalization, spelling, and punctuation errors that may have occurred. Often these tasks are performed independently, with a freelancer working for multiple clients.

(Video) What is the Difference b/w Editing and Proofreading (With Examples) | Editing v/s Proofreading

coherence work

Use careful authorstransitionsWords and sentences that show how ideas in sentences and paragraphs are clarify how the ideas in your sentences and paragraphs are related. These words and phrases will help the writing flow smoothly. Adding transitions isn't the only way to improve consistency, but it's often helpful and gives your essays a sense of maturity.Table 8.3 Common transition words and phrasesIt groups many common transitions according to their purpose.

Tabla 8.3Common Transitional Words and Phrases

Transitions showing a sequence or timing
later prior to later
later long before About
As soon as Al final Following
initially first second Third pronto
Finally first of all after
Transitions showing position
Up through in the background
its lunar Behind under
next Additionally inside
Getting closer next opposite
to the left, to the right, to the side under Wo
Transitions showing completion
as a matter of fact for this reason complete
whose analysis is final Because of this for this reason
Transitions that continue a train of thought
Due other than that other than that
why beyond the fact follow this idea more
Besides that in the same way further away
keep looking taking into account... of course
Transitions that change a train of thought
but yet Nevertheless
despite on the other hand on the other hand
Transitions that show importance
especially other especially
as a matter of fact more important more important
the majority the worst
Transitions that introduce closing thoughts in a paragraph or essay
Al final last complete
Above all Al final last of all
Multifunctional transitions for open paragraphs or to connect ideas within paragraphs
of course in this point Surely
guaranteed and the truth Usually
Usually in this situation undoubtedly
no one denies Apparently understood
to be sure undoubtedly undoubtedly
Transitions Introducing Examples
for instance for instance
Transitions that clarify the order of events or steps
first second Third in general, moreover, finally first, also, last
first of all, furthermore, finally both first and last

After Maria reviewed the unit, she revised her paragraph about televisions for consistency. She looked for places where she needed to add a transition or perhaps rephrase the text to make the flow of thought clearer. In the next version, she already removed the off-topic sentences.


Many authors do their reviews on paper and then transfer them to the screen version. They traditionally use a small arrow called a caret (^) to indicate where to add an addition or correction.

proofreading and editing (2)

exercise 2

  1. Answer the following questions about Mariah's revised paragraph.

    1. Do you agree with the transitions and other changes that Mariah made in her paragraph? Which ones would you keep and which ones would you not need? To explain.
    2. What transition words or phrases did Mariah add to her paragraph? Why did she choose her all?
    3. What effect does adding additional sentences have on the coherence of the paragraph? To explain. If you read both versions aloud, which has a more logical flow of ideas? To explain.
  2. Now go back to the first draft of the essay you wrote.Section 8 "Write your own first draft"and check for consistency. Add transitional words and phrases as needed, and make any other necessary changes to improve the flow and connection between ideas.

Be clear and concise

Some writers are very methodical and meticulous when writing a first draft. Other writers use many words to express everything they feel they need to say. Do any of these composition styles fit your style? Or is your songwriting style somewhere in between? Whichever description suits you best, the first draft of almost all texts, regardless of author, can be clearer and more concise.

If you tend to overtype, you should search for unnecessary words. If you tend to be vague or imprecise in your words, you need to find specific words to replace overly general speech.

recognize the breadth

Sometimes authors use too many words when fewer words resonate more with the audience and better serve their purpose. Here are some common examples of verbosity to consider in your design. Removing verbosity helps all readers by making your ideas clear, direct, and to the point.

  • Sentences that start with Hay o Hay.

    Verbose:There are two main experiments sponsored by the Institute of Biology.

    Classified:The Department of Biology sponsors two large experiments.

  • Phrases with unnecessary modifiers.

    Verbose:Two well-known and well-known consumer advocates spoke eloquently in favor of the important bill.

    Classified:Two well-known consumer advocates spoke in favor of the bill.

  • Sentences with dead phrases that add little to meaning.Be careful when using expressions likewith reference to,with sense of,about the topic,whether or not,Following,with regard..., and similar expressions. You can usually find a more direct way to get your point across.

    Verbose:As a world leader in green technology, the company plans to focus its efforts on geothermal energy.

    A report on the use or non-use of geysers as a source of energy is being prepared.

    (Video) Learn Editing and Proofreading | Proofreading and Writing Editing techniques Part-1 :

    Classified:As a world leader in green technologies, the company plans to focus on geothermal energy.

    A report on the use of geysers as a source of energy is being prepared.

  • Sentences in passive or with verb forms to be.Sentences with passive verbs often cause confusion because the subject of the sentence is not performing an action. Sentences are clearest when the subject of the sentence performs the action and it is followed by a strong verb. Use strong active verbs instead of forms ofto be, which can lead to expansion. Avoid the passive voice if you can.

    Verbose:Perhaps it could be said that the use of a GPS device is something that benefits drivers with a poor sense of direction.

    Classified:Using a GPS device benefits motorists who have a poor sense of direction.

  • Sentences with constructions that can be shortened.

    Verbose:The e-book reader, a recent invention, could become as common as the cell phone.

    My uncle in his sixties bought an e-book reader and his wife also bought an e-book reader.

    Classified:The e-book reader, a recent invention, could become as common as the cell phone.

    My uncle, who is over 60, and his wife bought e-book readers.

exercise 3

Now go back to the first draft of the essay you reviewed. Look for unnecessary words. Try to formulate your sentences as concisely as possible.

Choose specific and appropriate words

Most college essays must be written in formal English appropriate for an academic situation. Follow these principles to make sure your word choice is right. For more information on word choice, seeChapter 4 "Working with words: Which word is correct?".

  • Avoid colloquialism.Find alternatives toodisappointment,only, zRad.
  • Avoid too loose language.Write about "men and women" instead of "girls and boys" unless you're trying to make a specific impact. A formal tone requires a formal language.
  • avoid contractions.To usedo not do itnot place ofno,soynot place ofsoy,There is notnot place ofThere is not, etc. Contractions are considered casual language.
  • Avoid clichés.Overused expressions likeverde por them,still to music,Better late than never, and similar phrases are meaningless and may not appeal to your audience.
  • Be careful about using words that sound similar but have different meanings.Some examples areallusion/illusion,complementary compliment,Council/Counselor,simultaneously/consecutively,Founder/Attorney, zhistorical/historical🇧🇷 If you have doubts, consult a dictionary.
  • Choose words with the connotations you want.Choosing a word for its connotations is just as important in formal writing as it is in all types of writing. Compare the positive connotations of the wordstalland the negative connotations ofarrogantmipretentious.
  • Use specific words instead of words that are too general.Look up synonyms forTimbre,personas,I call,Boa,forever,Interestingand other vague words. Or use specific details to clarify the exact meaning.

Now read Mariah's edits to make her third paragraph clearer and more concise. She has already incorporated the changes she made to improve unity and consistency.

proofreading and editing (3)

exercise 4

  1. Answer the following questions about Mariah's revised paragraph:

    1. Read aloud the revised and unrevised paragraphs. In her own words, she explains how the wording changes affected Mariah's writing.
    2. Do you agree with the changes Mariah made to her paragraph? What changes would you keep and what would be unnecessary? To explain. What other changes would you make?
    3. What effect removes contractions and pronouns?ellahas in the tone of the paragraph? How would you characterize the sound now? There?
  2. Now go back to your dress rehearsal. Carefully read the word choice problems. Make sure your draft is written in formal language and that your writing is specific and appropriate.

Completion of a peer review

After working so hard on a text, authors often need to step back and ask for a more objective reader. What authors need most is feedback from readers who can only respond to the words on the page. When they're done, authors show their drafts to someone they respect and who can give an honest answer about their strengths and weaknesses.

You can also ask a colleague to read your draft when you're done. After evaluating the comments and evaluating what is most useful, the reader's comments will help you revise your draft. This process is calledPeer ReviewThe process by which an author allows a colleague to read and rate a draft..

You can work with a partner in your class and find specific ways to strengthen each other's essays. While you may feel uncomfortable sharing your writing at first, remember that all writers work toward the same goal: a final draft that suits their audience and purpose. Maintaining a positive attitude when giving feedback will put both you and your partner at ease. The box below provides a useful structure for the peer review session.

Peer Review Questions

Essay Title: ___________________________________________________

Data: ____________________________________________

(Video) Part-2 : Learn Editing and Proofreading | Proofreading and Writing Editing techniques

Author's name: _____________________________________________

Reviewer Name: __________________________________________

  1. This essay is about _____________________________________________.
  2. Your main points in this essay are ___________________________________________________.
  3. What I liked the most about this essay is _______________________________________________.
  4. These three points struck me the most:

    1. Point: ______________________________

      By: ____________________________________________

    2. Point: ______________________________

      By: ____________________________________________

    3. Point: ______________________________

      By: ____________________________________________

  5. These passages from your essay are not clear to me:

    1. Wo: _____________________________________________

      Need to improve because __________________________________________

    2. Wo: _____________________________________________

      Needs to improve because __________________________________________

    3. Wo: _____________________________________________

      Needs to improve because __________________________________________

  6. The only additional change you could make to greatly improve this essay is _____________________________________________.

writing at work

One of the reasons that word processors include proofing functionality is that breakout groups have become a common feature in many companies. Writing is often done collaboratively, with members of a work group and their supervisors often critiquing the work of group members and providing feedback that leads to a better final product.

exercise 5

Trade essays with a classmate and do a peer review of your current draft. Remember to give positive feedback and be courteous and courteous in your responses. Focus on a positive comment and a question to get more information from the author.

Use feedback objectively

The purpose of peer feedback is to receive constructive criticism of your essay. Your proofreader is your first real audience, and you have the opportunity to learn what confuses and excites a reader so you can improve your work before publishing the final draft to a larger audience (or your target audience).

It may not be necessary to include all of your reviewer's recommendations. However, if you start to see a pattern in the responses you get from reviewers, consider that feedback for future assignments. For example, if you read consistent comments about the need for more research, consider including more research in future assignments.

Use of comments from multiple sources.

You can get feedback from more than one reader by sharing different stages of your revised draft. In this situation, you may receive feedback from readers who do not understand the assignment or lack your commitment and enthusiasm for it.

(Video) How to Become a Proofreader Online From Home | A Beginner's Guide

You should evaluate the responses you get based on two important criteria:

  1. Determine if the feedback supports the purpose of the task.
  2. Determine whether the proposed revisions are appropriate for the audience.

Then accept or reject review comments in accordance with these standards.

exercise 6

Work with two partners. To return toNote 8.81 "Exercise 4"in this lesson and compare your answers to Activity A about Mariah's paragraph with those of your classmates. Remember the purpose of Mariah's writing and her audience. Then individually list where she agrees and disagrees about the need for revision.

editing your draft

If, like Mariah, you have incorporated each set of revisions, you have created multiple drafts of your writing. So far, all of her changes have been content changes. Perhaps with the help of comments from colleagues, she will be sure that she has sufficiently endorsed her ideas. You sought problems with unity and coherence. He checked the word choice of her essay, corrected to remove unnecessary words, and replaced weak words with specific, appropriate words.

The next step after reviewing the content is editing. When editing, you examine the surface features of your text. They check your spelling, grammar, usage, and punctuation. You must also use the correct format when creating your finished task.


Processing often takes time. The time budget in the writing process allows you to make more corrections after proofreading. Editing and proofreading your text will help you create a finished work that reflects your best efforts. Here are some other tips to remember about your readers:

  • However, the correct spelling does not surprise the reader.disapproval gesturePlease note spelling errors.
  • Readers look beyond your sentences to get to your ideas, unless the sentences are awkward, poorly constructed, and frustrating to read.
  • Readers notice when each sentence has the same rhythm as all the others, with no alternation.
  • Readers don't celebrate when you useLaub,are, zis it sotrue, but they will know if you don't.
  • Readers will note the care you took in your work and your attention to detail in providing an error-free document.

The first section of this book provides a helpful overview of grammar, mechanics, and usage. Use it to eliminate major errors in your writing and refine your understanding of language conventions. Feel free to ask other tutors in your academic department or university writing lab for help. In the meantime, use the checklist to edit your essay.

Check list

processing of your letter


  • Are some sentences really sentence fragments?
  • Are some sentences connected sentences? How can I fix them?
  • Do some sentences need conjunctions between independent clauses?
  • Does each verb agree with its subject?
  • Are all the verbs in the correct tense?
  • Are the tenses spelled correctly, especially with irregular verbs?
  • Did I use the subject, object, and possessive pronouns correctly?
  • I usuallywe aremiTo dieRight?
  • Is the prefix of each pronoun clear?
  • Do all the personal pronouns agree with your antecedents?
  • Did I use the correct comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs?
  • Is it clear which word modifies a participatory sentence or is it a pending modifier?

construction of sentences

  • Are all my sentences simple sentences or do I vary the structure of my sentences?
  • Have I chosen the best coordinating or subordinating conjunctions to connect sentences?
  • Did I create long, messy sentences that should be shortened for clarity?
  • Do I see any errors in the parallel structure?


  • Does each sentence end with the correct punctuation mark?
  • Can I justify the use of each exclamation mark?
  • Did I use apostrophes correctly to write all singular and plural possessive forms?
  • Did I use the quotes correctly?

mechanics and use

  • Can I find misspellings? How can I fix them?
  • Did I use capital letters when necessary?
  • Have I spelled the abbreviations correctly where they are allowed?
  • I can find some errors in the use of commonly confused words, such astowards/Also/From?


Be careful not to rely too much on the spelling and grammar checker. A spell checker can't recognize what you tried to typebeginningbut wroteDirectorInstead of. A grammar checker usually looks for constructions that are perfectly correct. The program does not understand its meaning; carries out its proof using a general set of formulas that may not apply in all cases. When using a grammar checker, accept suggestions that make sense, but consider why the suggestions arose.


Verification requires patience; it is very easy to read for a mistake. Set the paper aside for at least a few hours, if not a day or so, to rest. Some professional proofreaders read the text backwards so they can focus on spelling and punctuation. Another helpful technique is to read a piece of paper slowly out loud, paying attention to each word, letter, and punctuation mark.

If you need additional help with proofreading, ask a trusted friend, classmate, or tutor to do a final proofreading of your work to find out what you missed.


Remember to use the correct format when creating your finished task. Sometimes a teacher, department, or faculty will require students to follow specific directions regarding headings, margins, page numbers, or the position of the author's name. These requirements can be more detailed and rigorous for research projects and term papers, which often follow American Psychological Association (APA) or Modern Language Association (MLA) style guides, especially when citations are included.

To ensure that the format is correct and any specific instructions are followed, please do a final check before submitting an assignment.

exercise 7

Edit and proofread your essay using the checklist.

(Video) Editing vs. Proofreading

Main Conclusions

  • Proofing and editing are the steps in the writing process where you refine your work before creating a final draft.
  • During the review, add, trim, move, or change information to improve the content.
  • As you edit, you'll look again at the words and phrases you used to express your ideas and correct any problems with grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
  • Consistency in writing means that all the ideas in each paragraph and throughout the essay clearly belong together and are arranged in a logically meaningful order.
  • Consistency in writing means that the author's words clearly show how one idea within a paragraph and between paragraphs leads to another.
  • Transitional words and phrases make writing more cohesive.
  • The writing must be clear and concise, without unnecessary words.
  • Effective formal writing uses specific, appropriate words and avoids jargon, contractions, clichés, and overly generic words.
  • Done correctly, peer reviews can provide authors with objective feedback on their writing. It is the responsibility of the author to evaluate the results of the peer review and only include useful comments.
  • Remember to allow time for careful editing and proofreading. Use all available resources, including editing checklists, peer editing, and your institution's writing lab, to improve your editing skills.


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